Security Lighting and Human Nature
A modest sum each month to keep this guy away is a bargain, right? But, have you ever asked yourself exactly how lighting some part of your yard is suppose to protect you and your property from this dastardly fellow? While you are at it, if you are going to light the place for him, why would he need that flashlight? Wouldn’t he be more conspicuous if he needed it? Perhaps we should consider who the thief here really is.
“Oh, Dastardly Dan will see the light, and that will certainly frighten him away” – you might say. Really? Sure, we think of criminals as not like ourselves, but they are not cockroaches.
The word Lunatics comes from the time before artificial lighting, when all the bad and wild stuff that humans did at night happened near the full moon. Why? Because it is dangerous to wander around in the dark, that’s why. People tended to stay home at night with no moon until we invented streetlights. Ask yourself, if light deters crime why is crime the highest in our light polluted cities, or in days of yore on moonlight nights?
So, is Dan frightened or facilitated by your “night watcher”? Have you thought that maybe criminals are more like moths than cockroaches? Time for some facts:
- Most burglaries occur in the day when the residents are away, and the burglars can see what they are doing and don’t look so conspicuous as Dastardly Dan with his flashlight. (i) How bright does it need to be if daylight is not a deterrent?
- There is no objective evidence that simply lighting some place provides security in the absence of active surveillance. Indeed, experts agree, lighting may just as well facilitate crime as discourage it. (ii)
- To the contrary, experience and controlled studies alike have shown that outdoor lighting can attract crime, suggesting that criminals, like the rest of us, are afraid of the dark and need light to get around. (iii)
- For residential security purposes, lighting on a motion sensor is more likely to be effective. Not only does it not attract or facilitate criminal intent but it signals possible detection when it comes on. (iv)
To be sure there are times and place where lighting is needed for safety and security, essentially any place where people can be expected to be out and about or where there is active surveillance. That is not typically the case in a residential area, or around a rural home late at night, when the only people out are those with criminal intent.Even when and where useful, to be effective, proper lighting levels should be used, uneven lighting and shadows as well as light trespass avoided. In other words, real security lighting require design and planning. (iv)
Your typical utility company does not have lighting or security expertise. Instead a “night watcher” or flood light is going to be thrown on an existing pole, send light in every direction only to peter out into shadows, which along with glare produced by a cheap unshielded fixture will likely degrade visibility as much as improve it. Such lighting only provides an expensive security illusion.
So why do so many people pay for security lights? First, because utilities have heavily marketed “security lighting” to sell electricity at night when demand otherwise drops, this even though many have no actual expertise in lighting design or security. You see, coal- fired power plants don’t have throttles. Perhaps this also explains why few offer motion sensors; they are selling electricity not security?
Second, because it is an easy sell. Humans, criminal and lawful alike, are out of our element in the dark. We natively fear it. light is good and darkness is evil. Lost in a wilderness, what would be the first thing we would want as night falls? The universality of leaving a little light on in the bedroom of a frightened child shows how ingrained the impulse is. It makes for an easy sell and we consumers have been buying it without considering the wasted money, the damage to the environment, our health and the esthetics of loosing the night, or the impact on our neighbors.
Of course, there are times and places where light is useful and has the very virtues we intuitively ascribe to it, such as a porch, a walkway lighting when expecting guests, driveway lighting on a motion sensor. Lighting in a parking lot or pedestrian way when in use and when a security watch is posted.
But just lighting some part of a yard or a street or parking lot all night when no one is present is not a rational thing to do. It not only cost money, but contributes to the degradation of our environment. A 100 watt bulb burning all night every night for a year generates almost half a ton of carbon dioxide along with other air and water pollutants and there is growing evidence that lighting the night is impacting human health and altering the environment for other living things. (vi)
If you are really worried about crime, there are things you can do that are real like security systems. (vii)
Get smart, turn the night light off and use the money to light and protect your home properly. You will be safer, a little richer, the world less polluted and the stars closer.
ii A Report to the United States Congress, by the National Institute of Justice: “We can have very little confidence that improved lighting prevents crime, particularly since we do not know if offenders use lighting to their advantage.”
iii The Chicago Alley Lighting Project: Final Evaluation Report April 2000, Illinois Criminal Justice Information Center. http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/pdf/ResearchReports/Chicago%20A lley%20Lighting%20Project.pdf .A controlled study comparing crime rates between lighted and unlighted Chicago alleys. Results showed a clear increase in all categories of crime in the lighted alleys when compared to the same alleys before they were lighted and the unlighted comparison alleys.
Illumination Engineering Society, ES PR-33-14, 4.6.2, “lighting alone cannot provide security…increasing lighting levels does not necessarily increase security…A common error with security lighting is to assume that static lighting (lighting that is always on) is required…Using lighting that is controlled by motion sensors or similar devices which turn light on when a potential threat is detected can increase security.
http://www.dailygazette.com/weblogs/hartley/2011/nov/14/dimming-lights/ Reporting that towns in New York area turning down or off street lighting late at night to save money find crime falls.
http://jech.bmj.com/content/69/11/1118 British Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. DOI: 10.1136/jech-2015-206012. Finds widespread implementation of practices to dim or turn off street lighting late at night has no impact on crime other than a small decrease in violent crime.
http://www.peninsula.wednet.edu/conservation/Energy/dark%20campus.htm A Washington state school district saves almost a million dollars a year on electricity by turning campus lighting off at night and finds vandalism and burglary drops to near zero.
iv Illumination Engineering Society, IESNA G-1-03 7.2.10
v Illumination Engineering Society, IESNA G-1-03
vi (AMA) REPORT 4 OF THE COUNCIL ON SCIENCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH (A-12) Light Pollution: Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting.
vii Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, www.cpted.net